Climatic conditions play a very important role in maintaining the ecosystems. Rapid change in climate brings about drastic effects on the ecosystem. If the climate changes are gradual, organisms can slowly adapt and evolve. But sudden change collapses the ecosystem.
From a human point of view, rapid change in climate and loss of biodiversity is dangerous, as it affects food chain, which ultimately affects humans.
Global Biodiversity Outlook of UN summarized few concerns about the impact of climate change on the ecosystem. The major concern was the loss of ice at the Arctic sea, which is due to global warming. Ocean acidification due to carbon emission is also an important environmental concern. Some organisms like insects and pests might benefit from increased temperature but even for them, sudden change of climate gives no time to adapt, resulting in their extinction.
Effect of climate changes in Arctic
High latitudes and poles have shown the highest rate of increased temperature, which has resulted in a reduction of ice in Arctic. The lesser the ice, the more rapidly it melts. There is a risk of losing entire biome in Arctic. As a result, all the organism that live there is at risk.
Climate change and Ocean change
Ocean is the region which takes up most of the warmth from the atmosphere. This results in damage to numerous ecosystems. 93.4% of global warming goes into the oceans. This means that the ocean is heating up much faster than land. The rapid increase of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere has resulted in an oceanic condition which hasn’t been seen for millions of years. This could result in irreversible ecological damage, which would result in habitat loss, death and extinction.
Acidification of ocean is caused when excessive carbon dioxide is dissolved in the ocean. This disrupts the animals that produce calcium carbonate to make shells, as the acidification dissolves calcium carbonate. It has been observed that the water is 30%more acidic than it was before industries were built. Coral reefs are also at huge threat because of acidification and increased temperatures. If the reefs go extinct, it will create a chain reaction which would result in the extinction of most of the major ecosystems.
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